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Automation, refers to the idea that computers automate or mimic human thought. The term originates from Lev Manovich's 2001 book The Language of New Media. Automation is a consequence of Numerical representation and Modularity which render media able to be "programmed" and thus able to manipulated mathematically.


Early examples[]

Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine[]

Alan Turing's Universal Turing Machine[]

Turing claimed "...the machine could perform any calculation which can be done by a human."

Vanner Bush's Memex Machine[]

Low vs High level automation[]

Manovich highlights two types of automation, low-level and high-level. Where low-level automation results in automated shortcuts to repetivie computer behavior, high-level automation results in "...meaning embedded in the objects being generated."


Examples of low-level automation[]

-auto-complete typing features
-batch edits in photoshop
-automatic browser updates
-Google alerts

Examples of high-level automation[]

-Artificial Intelligence (AI) engines and neural networks that simulate human intelligence and adaptive behavior in games
-The idea of a Semantic Web, defined by the development of an Internet network of machine readable communication structures enabling computers to find, locate and process information without the user's direct involvement

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