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'''Transcoding''', according to [[Lev Manovich]] in his 2001 book [[The Language of New Media]] is an intrinsic quality to any new media object. It refers to the interpretation of the human “cultural layer” in computer ontology and the “computer layer” in human cultural terms. Manovich believes each layer influences the development of the other and are no longer separable. Manovich sees transcoding as the most substantial consequence of the computerization of media.